Posted by : Shubham Pandey Monday, February 8


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Networking


Usually networking protocol are developed on layering. Each layering is responsible for different activities performed during communication in a communication systems that is for performing any task in networking there is  set of rules which is strictly followed by networking system.

TCP/IP  

TCP/IP is the combination different set of instructions and rules and various layers. It allows protocol suite for all kind of computers and for all kind of operating systems .  Basely it consists of  four layer system and is below.

   1. Application layer system.
          For example -
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  • Telnet 
  • FTP
  • Email 
   2. Transport layer system.
         For example -
  • TCP
  • UDP
   3. Network layer system. 
         For example -
  •  IP
  • ICMP
  • IGMP
   4. Link layer system.
          For example -
  • Device drivers.
  • Interface card. 
 

Application layer 

This layering responsible to handles the detail of particular application.
There are many TCP/IP applications which are handled by application layer system.  
  •  Telnet for remote login
  •  FTP, the File Transfer Protocol
  •  SMTP, the Simple Mail Transfer protocol, for electronic mail
  •  SNMP, the Simple Network Management Protocol,

 Transport layer

This layer is responsible for to handles the flow of data in between two 
hosts. In the TCP/IP protocol suite there are two vastly different transport protocols: 
1.  TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) provides a reliable flow of data between two hosts.
2. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) sends packets of data called datagrams from one host to another host.  

 Network layer

This layer of TCP/Ip handles the moment of packet around a network by routing  of packets  through -  IP (Internet Protocol), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), and IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). 

 Link layer  

This layer is responsible for data linking that is why this layer is also known as Data-link layer. Normally it handles the operating system and the corresponding network interface card in the computer.


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